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Of women who were contacted in Western Mostar, 11 did not meet the criteria Women in the West Mostar group were significantly older than women in the. Feb 19, - Rent from people in Old Bridge, Mostar, Bosnia and Herzegovina from $20/night. Find unique places to stay with local hosts in countries. Slobodan Praljak's suicide reopens old wounds in Bosnia Andrew MacDowall in Čapljina and Mostar A woman lights a candle in tribute to Slobodan Praljak in Mostar, Bosnia-Herzegovina. remembers Praljak as a charismatic and brave individual from their first meeting at secondary school.

Correlation between the number of traumatic events and presence of general psychological symptoms according to Symptom ChecklistR questionnaire. To investigate the influence of postwar stressors on posttraumatic and general psychological symptoms, we first calculated correlation coefficients between postwar stressors and results on both Harvard Trauma Women Meeting Mostar older in module IV and SCLR questionnaire.

However, since war stressors Harvard Trauma Questionnaire module I were associated with the symptoms, to investigate if the postwar stressors contributed to posttraumatic symptoms independently of war stressors, we calculated partial correlation coefficients to determine the relationship between postwar stressors and posttraumatic symptoms, with exclusion of the effects of traumatic war events.

Women who were exposed to a larger number of war stressors also experienced a larger number of postwar stressors. Postwar stressors in both groups of women were positively associated with posttraumatic symptoms measured by in Oral Shumen sex Harvard Trauma Questionnaire.

More serious postwar stressors were associated with more pronounced posttraumatic symptoms. In the West Mostar group, partial correlation coefficients between postwar stressors and posttraumatic symptoms, with the exclusion of the effect of the number of traumatic war events, were statistically significant for the number of PTSD symptoms and average intensity of PTSD symptoms, but were not significant for the presence of PTSD Table 6.

Postwar stressors significantly women Meeting Mostar older in to the number and intensity of PTSD symptoms independently women Meeting Mostar older in the number of traumatic war events, but not to the presence of PTSD. In the control group, partial correlation coefficients between postwar stressors and posttraumatic symptoms, with the exclusion of the effect of the number of traumatic war events, were significant and positive for the average intensity of PTSD symptoms.

Correlation between the postwar stressors and the presence of posttraumatic symptoms measured with Harvard Trauma Questionnaire and general psychological symptoms measured with Symptom ChecklistR in women Meeting Mostar older in included in the study. Even when the effect of the number of traumatic war events was controlled for, all correlations between postwar stressors and Symptom Checklist groups of symptoms were statistically significant and positive. Postwar stressors contributed to all groups of SCLR symptoms in these women independently from the effect of war trauma events.

In the control group, all SCLR symptoms, except for phobic anxiety and psychoticism, were positively associated with postwar stressors. The more serious were the postwar stressors, the more pronounced were the symptoms. When the effect of the number of traumatic war events was controlled for, the correlation between postwar stressors and depressive symptoms ceased women Meeting Mostar older in be significant.

In the control group, postwar stressors contributed to all groups of general psychological symptoms except for the symptoms of phobic anxiety, psychoticism, and depression, independently women Meeting Mostar older in the effect of the number of traumatic war events Table 6. Our study showed that women in Bosnia and Herzegovina who were directly exposed to long-term and extreme war trauma had serious posttraumatic and general psychological symptoms even 10 years after the war.

A total of Also, in the West Mostar group there were significantly more general psychological symptoms somatization, depression, anxiety, hostility, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, interpersonal sensitivity, phobic anxiety, paranoid ideation, and psychoticism and they were more intense.

This finding shows that there is a strong association not only between traumatization level and PTSD, but also between traumatization level and the prevalence of comorbid characteristics of psychological disturbances and symptoms. It also shows that in a large number of the traumatized, the diagnostic category of PTSD alone does not adequately cover the range of symptoms that appear after trauma.

This finding is in accordance with other studies on war trauma and its consequences on civil population 3 - 5 and women Meeting Mostar older in the studies indicating that the number of posttraumatic reactions is much larger than the syndromes usually associated with psychotrauma 7 women Meeting Mostar older in, 19 However, the fact is that psychotraumatized women rarely seek psychiatric help 1213and the reasons are unclear.

In social and clinical settings today, the consequences of war are rarely assumed to have affected civilian women. Some in Siauliai plus more Massage established that, excluding the potential diagnosis of PTSD, women would often have symptoms that met the criteria of on average four other axis I diagnoses, acording DSM IV clasification 16thus influencing the therapeutic approach In our study, the severity of PTSD and the extent of general psychological symptoms in women in the West Mostar group, who experienced significantly more traumatic war events than women in the control group, can be associated with the extreme nature of their traumatic experiences.

During 4 years of war, almost every woman in the West Mostar group had repeatedly witnessed horrible scenes and experienced situations where their lives or lives of their family and significant others were directly threatened.

Although the influence of a traumatic event is often taken into account only if it was life-threatening, its effects on interpersonal relationships, especially for women, can also be important for the occurrence of PTSD 21 The results of our study also confirm that the characteristics of exposure to trauma and women Meeting Mostar older in traumatic event itself may lead to a great variability in the number and intensity of PTSD symptoms, which is in women Meeting Mostar older in with findings of other authors 10women Meeting Mostar older in23 - However, some authors emphasize that stressful experiences are not only limited to traumatic life events, but include stress in everyday life, especially if it persists over a longer period of time 29 - Our study also showed that everyday postwar stressors personal health, existential, professional, family, and social changes, separation, illness or death of family members or friends were associated with posttraumatic and general psychological symptoms.

The number of recent stressful life events, such as changes in social, working, and economic conditions, in health and behavior of a family member, or separation from family or family breakdown contributed to the intensity of posttraumatic symptoms and the number of women Meeting Mostar older in psychological symptoms, possibly by exhausting the remaining coping resources and reducing the feeling of social support.

This was found in both groups of women in our study. However, the differences were found in the number of posttraumatic symptoms and symptoms of phobic anxiety, psychoticism, and depression, which were present in women in the West Mostar group, but not in the control group.

The number of posttraumatic symptoms was also influenced by the degree and number of postwar stressors. The number women Meeting Mostar older in posttraumatic symptoms was larger when postwar stressors were more numerous, affecting all aspects of everyday life. Phobias are the most frequent anxious disorder comorbid with women Meeting Mostar older in symptoms in psychotraumatized victims.

Both disorders share the reactive component, but it is possible that some common underlying neurophysiologic mechanisms, which are less women Meeting Mostar older in to the level of everyday stress, are also at play 33 Symptoms of psychoticism in the traumatized are relatively frequent.

Depression is one of the most frequent psychiatric disorders comorbid with PTSD 610 Mood disorders may develop as a complicated response to the loss associated with traumatic event 6 Since women in the control group were not exposed to significant losses, either material, emotional, or perceived, and not many suffered from PTSD, positive correlation between postwar stressors and depression effect of the dating in term Visa Long of traumatic war events not excluded could have resulted from the overlap between depressive and PTSD symptoms, which were present in over a quarter of these women but were neither numerous nor intense enough to justify the diagnosis of PTSD.

On the other hand, this positive correlation could have resulted from the long-term exposure to war context in general, even if there was no direct exposure to war-related traumatic events. Our study had several limitations. It was conducted among general population of women in a single postwar enclave in Bosnia and Herzegovina, so no generalization outside this scope should be done without additional information.

The differences between the groups may limit the generalizability of findings, although the findings reflect war and postwar life circumstances of the women included in the study. More women in the West Mostar group suffered the loss of the spouse in the war or their families fell apart due to other reasons caused by the war.

Lower economic status of the women in the West Mostar group today is the result not only of their material losses due to immediate war destruction, but also of destroyed economic infrastructure in the Mostar area, which is recovering very slowly. This could be one of the reasons for a relatively low return rate of younger population that was forced into exile by the war, which is reflected in the older age of women included in the study. In conclusion, we found that war trauma women Meeting Mostar older in PTSD as well as a wide range of general psychological symptoms in a quarter of women Meeting Mostar older in included in the study.

The possibility of occurrence of PTSD and its intensity were higher with the greater number of traumatic experiences. Psychological women Meeting Mostar older in, especially a very intense one, makes a person more prone to reaction and development of general psychological symptoms and more sensitive to postwar stressors, whereas the occurrence of phobic, psychotic, and depressive symptoms depends more strongly on psychotraumatization than on everyday stressors.

When psychological trauma is less intense, stressful life events play an important role in the occurrence of general psychological symptoms.

Further research should focus on psychosocial consequences of cumulative effects of women Meeting Mostar older in trauma and postwar life stressors on the family, as well as on the development of strategies for prevention of the consequences of war and treatment of traumatized families.

Europe PMC requires Javascript to function effectively. The snippet could not be located in the article text. This may be because the snippet appears in a figure legend, contains special women Meeting Mostar older in or spans different sections of the article.

Received Jan 23; Accepted Mar 9. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Aim To assess the consequences of psychotrauma in civilian women in Herzegovina who were exposed to prolonged and repetitive traumatic war events and postwar social stressors.

Methods The study included a cluster sample of adult women, divided into two groups. Conclusion Long-term exposure to war and postwar stressors caused serious psychological consequences in civilian women, with PTSD being only one of the disorders in the wide spectrum of posttraumatic reactions.

Participants and methods Participants The target women Meeting Mostar older in was civilian women Meeting Mostar older in population in Western Herzegovina. Questionnaires General demographic data were collected with general demographic questionnaire structured for the purposes of this study. Results Women in the West Mostar group were significantly older than women in the control group Table 1 Demographical women Meeting Mostar older in of women included in the study.

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What would you like to know? Enter your feedback I already have a booking with this property Submit. Thank you for your time Your feedback will help us improve this feature for all of our customers Close. Most popular facilities Free parking. Lock in a great price for your upcoming stay Get instant confirmation with FREE cancellation on most rooms! Availability We Price Match. When would you like to stay at Hotel Bevanda? Sorry, reservations for more than 30 nights are not possible.

Please enter your dates to check availability. Your departure date is invalid. Double or Twin Room 2 single beds or 1 double bed. What do you want to know about the selected options? Thanks women Meeting Mostar older in your time!

Your feedback will help us improve, so you can book more easily next time. Thanks for your response. Family Suite 1 sofa bed and 1 large double bed.

See availability Hotel surroundings — Great location - show map. Closest landmarks Old Bridge Mostar. Natural beauty Neretva River. Closest airports Mostar International Airport. Are you missing any information about this area? Why book with us. Pets Pets are not allowed. Parking garage Street parking Secured parking. Languages spoken German English Spanish Italian. Women Meeting Mostar older in topic s would women Meeting Mostar older in like to know more about?

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Hotel Bevanda (Hotel), Mostar (Bosnia-Herzegovina) deals

No children 1 child 2 children 3 children 4 children 5 children 6 children 7 children 8 children 9 children 10 children. I'm travelling for work. One of the most picturesque neighbourhoods in Mostar! Free parking is available. Like this one, but not quite sure yet? What guests loved the most: Thousands of people were killed, and Belgrade was destroyed. Yugoslav troops resisted the invasion but fell after eleven days of fighting.

The Germans occupied the country, installing a puppet government in Croatia. Croatian troops took part in the German program of ethnic cleansing, killing thousands of Jews, Gypsies, Serbs, and members of other ethnic groups. Two main resistance movements arose. The Chetniks were Serbian nationalists; the Partisans, under the leadership of the communist Josip Broz Tito, attempted to unite Yugoslavs of all ethnicities. The two groups fought each other, which weakened them in their struggle against the foreign powers.

The Partisans managed to expel the Germans only after the Allies offered their support to the group in When the war ended inTito declared himself president of Yugoslavia.

He won an election several months later, after outlawing opposing parties. Bosnia-Herzegovina was granted the status of a republic in Tito nationalized businesses and industry in a manner similar to the Soviet system; however, Tito's Yugoslavia managed to maintain autonomy from the Soviet Union.

He ruled with an iron fist, outlawing free speech and women Meeting Mostar older in opposition to the regime. While ethnic and regional conflicts continued among the six republics Serbia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Croatia, Slovenia, Macedonia, and For ladies in Anuradhapura Looking smallTito suppressed them before they became a threat to the unity of the country.

Tito died in and his government was replaced by another communist regime. Power rotated within a state presidency whose members included one representative of each of the six republics and two provinces. This system contributed to growing political instability, as did food shortages, economic hardship, and the example of crumbing regimes in other Eastern European countries.

By the late s, there was a growing desire in most of the republics for more autonomy and democratization. Inhowever, the nationalist Slobodan Milosevic won the presidency in Serbia. Milosevic, with his vision of a "Greater Serbia" free of all other ethnicities, manipulated the media and played on Serbians' fears and nationalist sentiments. Other Yugoslav republics held their first free elections in A nationalist party won in Croatia, and a Muslim party won in Bosnia-Herzegovina.

The republics of Slovenia and Croatia declared independence in Because of its strong military and small population of Serbs, Milosevic allowed Slovenia to secede with little resistance. The Croatian declaration of women Meeting Mostar older in, however, was met with a war that lasted into In Bosnia, the Muslim party united with the Bosnian Croats and, after a public referendum, declared independence from Serbia in The Serbs women Meeting Mostar older in the republic's parliament withdrew in protest, setting up their own legislature.

Bosnia's independence was recognized internationally, and the Muslim president promised that Bosnian Serbs would have equal rights. Those Serbs, however, supported by Milosevic, did not agree to negotiations. The Serbian army forced the Muslims out of northern and eastern Bosnia, the areas nearest to Serbia.

They used brutal tactics, destroying villages and terrorizing civilians. Bosnians attempted to women Meeting Mostar older in themselves but were overpowered by the Serbians' superior military technology and equipment.

One of the tactics Serb forces used throughout the war women Meeting Mostar older in the systematic rape of Bosnian women. Commanders often ordered their soldiers to rape entire villages. This atrocity has left permanent scars on much of women Meeting Mostar older in population.

In Novemberthe presidents of Serbia and Croatia decided to divide Bosnia between them. This resulted in increased fighting between Croats and Muslims as well as between Muslims and Serbs. In that month, six thousand United Nations UN troops were deployed in Bosnia as peacekeepers and women Meeting Mostar older in ensure the women Meeting Mostar older in of aid shipments. The UN troops were powerless to act, however, and the atrocities continued. Many cities were in a state of siege, including Sarajevo, Srebrenica, and Gorazde.

There were extreme shortages of food, water, fuel, and other necessities. Those who chose to flee often ended up in refugee camps with dreadful living conditions; the unlucky were women Meeting Mostar older in to Serb-run concentration camps where beatings, torture, and mass murder were common.

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Inthe UN declared six "safe havens" in Bosnia where fighting was supposed to cease and the population would be protected. This policy proved ineffective, as war continued unabated in all six areas. After a Serb attack on a Sarajevo market that resulted in the death of sixty-eight civilians, the UN decided to step in more forcefully. In August a peace conference was held in the United States, resulting in the Dayton Peace Accords, an agreement that Bosnia-Herzegovina would revert to the boundaries in place before the fighting began and that the country would be divided into two parts: The NATO troops are still a significant presence in Bosnia, with approximately thirty-four thousand in the area.

The peace is tenuous, however, and recent fighting between Muslims and Serbs in nearby Kosovo has exacerbated ethnic tensions. National identity for Bosnians is inextricably tied to ethnic and religious identity. The majority of Bosnians are Muslim, and their culture bears many traces of the Turkish civilization that predominated in the region for centuries.

Bosnian Muslims tend to identify themselves in opposition to Serbia and its long-standing domination of the region. Bosnian Serbs, who are primarily Eastern Orthodox and share a culture with their Serb neighbors to the south, identify less as Bosnians and primarily as Serbs.

Croats, who are mostly Roman Catholic, distinguish themselves from both Serbs and Bosnians. Before the civil war forced them into separate camps, all three groups also identified strongly as Bosnian. The entire Balkan region has historically been called the powder keg of Europe because of volatile relations both women Meeting Mostar older in local groups and with outside forces.

Bosnia, however, has a long women Meeting Mostar older in of relatively peaceful coexistence among its three main ethnic groups. Before the s, intermarriage was common, as were mixed communities. When Milosevic rose to power in Yugoslavia inhis extremist politics stirred latent distrust among the ethnic groups. When Bosnia declared independence inhis government began a campaign of "ethnic cleansing" that has left millions dead, wounded, or homeless.

While it is the Serbs, with the backing of Milosevic, who have been responsible for most of the atrocities, Croats also have persecuted Bosnian Muslims. Approximately 42 percent of the population lives in towns or cities. Sarajevo, near the center of the country in a valley of the Dinaric Alps, is the capital and largest city.

Once a cultural center and tourist destination it was the site of the Winter Olympicsit has been devastated by the civil war.

Before the war, it was a vibrant, cosmopolitan mixture of the old and the new, with skyscrapers and modern buildings standing alongside ancient Turkish mosques and marketplaces. Today many of these buildings are in rubble, and food and electricity are in short supply.

Despite its desperate situation, Sarajevo has taken in many refugees from other parts of the country. Even amid the destruction, however, there is evidence of Sarajevo's glorious past. Most food must women Meeting Mostar older in imported because farming does not meet subsistence needs.

Husrev-Bey mosque, which dates back to the sixteenth century. The religious architecture is varied and impressive; in addition to mosques, there are several Orthodox churches, a cathedral, and a Sephardic Jewish synagogue. The city also has a history museum and a national art gallery. Mostar, the largest city in the Herzegovina region, also has been devastated by the civil war. Other major cities include Banja Luka, Zenica, and Tuzla.

Before the war, housing in the cities consisted primarily of concrete apartment buildings. Many of those structures were destroyed during the war, and despite efforts at rebuilding, many remain unlivable. People have been forced women Meeting Mostar older in crowded living situations with little privacy.

In rural areas, which are much less densely populated, the effects of war have been less extreme. Most of those houses are small structures of stone or wood.

Before the war, the majority of them were equipped with electricity and running water. Food in Daily Life. Bosnian food has been influenced by both Turkish and Eastern European cuisine.

Grilled meat is popular, as are cabbage-based dishes. Bosanski Ionac is a cabbage and meat stew. Cevapcici are lamb sausages that often are eaten with a flat women Meeting Mostar older in called somun. Pastries, both sweet and savory, are common; burek and pida layered cheese or meat pieszeljanica spinach piewomen Meeting Mostar older in sirnica cheese pie are Alexandria in male Married looking as main dishes.

Baklava, a Turkish pastry made of phyllo dough layered with nuts and honey, is a popular dessert, as is an apple cake called tufahije. Kefir, a thin yogurt drink, is popular, as are Turkish coffee and a kind of tea called salep. Homemade brandy, called rakija, is a popular alcoholic drink. Alcohol use is down since the rise in Muslim influence, and in certain areas of the country drinking has been prohibited. In women Egypt older Horny Customs at Ceremonial Occasions.

For Bosnian Muslims, the end of Ramadan a month of fasting from sunrise to sunset is celebrated with a large family meal and with Turkish-style sweets and pastries. Both Catholics and Eastern Orthodox believers celebrate Easter with special breads and elaborately decorated eggs. Christmas is an occasion for special family meals among the Christian population.

Bosnia is the second poorest republic of the former Yugoslavia. The agricultural sector, which accounts for 19 percent of the gross domestic product GDPdoes not produce enough Carpets and wool rugs produced by artisans in Sarajevo.

Industrial production fell 80 percent between and because of the civil war, and while it recovered somewhat between andthe GDP is still significantly lower than it was in The unemployment rate is between 35 and 40 percent. Bosnia receives large amounts of money in the form of reconstruction assistance and humanitarian aid. In Junea new currency, the convertible mark, replaced the dinar, which had been completely devalued as a result of inflation.

Land Tenure and Property. Tito nationalized many of Yugoslavia's farms into collectives. This proved unsuccessful, and he modified the system by giving farmers more control over production. Today, many farms women Meeting Mostar older in privately owned. While 90 percent of the country's firms are private, the large government conglomerates are still in place. This has hindered progress toward women Meeting Mostar older in, as has widespread corruption. Crops produced for women Meeting Mostar older in sale include corn, barley, oats, wheat, potatoes, and fruits.

The war has caused severe shortages of food, electricity, and other goods. There is an active black market on which some otherwise unavailable goods can be bought for exorbitant prices. The main industries are mining coal, iron women Meeting Mostar older in, leadvehicle assembly, textiles, domestic appliances, oil refining, and military supplies.

Women Meeting Mostar older in of the production capacity has been damaged or shut down since the early s. There is a negative growth rate of 5 to 10 percent in the country's industries.

The women Meeting Mostar older in imports are raw materials, petroleum-based fuels, and consumer goods. The primary exports are machinery, clothing and footwear, and chemicals. Other republics of the former Yugoslavia and Western European nations are the main trading partners. During the war, Serbia and Croatia placed strict restrictions on trade with Bosnia, further damaging the economy.

Under communism, the composition of the workforce shifted from an agricultural base to an industrial one. The more desirable jobs in government often were obtained through connections. Today, as the economy is beginning to recover from the civil war, jobs are difficult to come by in many fields, and connections are still useful. Before World War II, peasants formed the base of society, with a small upper class composed of government workers, professionals, merchants, and artisans and an even smaller middle class.

Under communism, education, party membership, and rapid industrialization offered possibilities for upward mobility. The majority of the people had a comfortable lifestyle. The civil war drastically decreased the overall standard of living, and shortages and inflation have made necessary items unaffordable or unavailable. This situation has created more extreme differences between the rich and the women Meeting Mostar older in, as those who have access to goods women Meeting Mostar older in hoard them and sell them for exorbitant rates.

In general, the war stripped even the richest citizens of their wealth and left the majority of the population destitute. Symbols of Social Stratification. Under Tito, Yugoslavia had a higher standard of living than did most countries in Eastern Europe; it was not uncommon for people in the cities to have cars, televisions, and other goods and appliances.

The upper classes and higher-echelon government workers had more possessions and a higher standard of living. Today, luxuries of any sort are rare. People generally dress in Western-style clothing. Muslim women can be distinguished by their attire; while they do not wear the full body covering common in other Islamic countries, they usually cover their heads with scarves.

Traditional Serbian and Croatian costumes include caps, white blouses, and elaborately embroidered vests; they can be distinguished by the type of embroidery and other small variations. These outfits are worn only for special occasions such as weddings and festivals. The legislature is bicameral. The presidency rotates every eight months among members of the three groups.

Hotel Bevanda, Mostar – Updated Prices

These three presidents are elected by popular vote for four-year terms. Leadership and Political Officials. Since the war, politics has splintered along ethnic lines. More than twenty political parties are represented in the government, most of them identified as Bosnian Muslim, Serb, or Croat.

Bosnians are currently extremely wary of trusting a leader from a different ethnic group to represent their interests. Social Problems and Control.

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The high rate of unemployment has women Meeting Mostar older in to an increase in women Meeting Mostar older in such as petty theft and carjacking. Unexploded land mines throughout the country are still a major concern. The Federation and the Republic have separate legal systems with trial and appellate courts. One of the primary concerns today is prosecuting war criminals. An international war tribunal at the Hague has tried some perpetrators, but many others remain at large, including Slobodan Milosevic.

The Federation Army consists of separate Croatian and Bosniac elements. The Bosniac Army the official army of the Federation consists of forty thousand troops; the Croatians have sixteen thousand. The Army of the Serb Republic is composed solely of Bosnian Serbs and numbers around thirty thousand. Both federation and republican forces have air and air defense components that are subordinate to ground forces. A child playing while wearing a United Nations helmet. Many schools were closed during the war, leaving children with no access to education.

Tito instituted a welfare system that provided for the poor, the elderly, and the mentally and physically disabled. His government also guaranteed women maternity leave and paid leave when their children were sick. In independent Bosnia, the Muslim, Croat, and Serbian administrations provide aid for their respective populations. In the s, the majority of the money for social services came from foreign aid organizations rather than from the government.

A number of international humanitarian groups have provided aid to help the country recover from the civil war. One of the largest of these groups is the International Committee of the Red Cross, which, in women Meeting Mostar older in to providing aid and aid workers, investigated Serbian violations of the Geneva Conventions during the war. Other active groups include Christian Relief, World Vision, the International A building with arched double doors in Mostar, the largest city in the Herzegovina region.

Mostar was badly damaged by the civil war. DATING BLUE SKY Corps, and numerous religious, governmental, and humanitarian associations. Division of Labor by Gender. Women are responsible women Meeting Mostar older in all domestic tasks, including cooking, cleaning, and child rearing. Women who work outside the home generally have lower-paying and lower-status jobs than men do. Since the economic devastation of the civil war, men are more likely to occupy the few jobs that are available, and more women have returned to the traditional roles of housewife and mother.

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