Women Algeria Older in

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Orientation. Identification. The name Algeria is derived from the name of the country's oldest continuous settlement and modern capital, Algiers, a strategically . During the Algerian War of Independence, Algerian women fought as equals alongside Many Algerian women are getting married and starting families at much older ages than they did under French Rule. Education, work commitment. Young or old, veiled or not, Algerian women are powerful symbols for all of the rival factions vying for power. Some kill women because they wear the hijab.

The largest industry in Algeria is the production and processing of oil and gas. Services trade, transport, and communications also are important. Other industries include agriculture, women Algeria Older in, mining, and manufacturing. Algeria's main exports are oil and gas, followed by dates, tobacco, leather goods, vegetables, and phosphates. Imports include raw materials, food, beverages, and consumer products. However, the government imposes strict regulations on imports in an effort to make the country more self-sufficient.

Most of Algeria's workers are unskilled. However, many of the jobs in the country's industries require specific training, and this fact contributes to women Algeria Older in high unemployment rate. The government has made an effort to change this by starting specialized training programs.

Although they have the freedom to pursue whatever career path they choose, many Algerians are constrained by financial hardship and the unpromising job market. The majority of Algerians are poor. Those who are better off are almost always Arabs, and tend to be urban and well educated. The upper classes generally look down not just upon the Berbers, but also upon rural, seminomadic Arabs who speak a different dialect. However, most Algerians are racially a mix of Arab and Berber, and variations women Algeria Older in skin tone and women Algeria Older in color are not reflected in social standing.

Symbols of Social Stratification. In the cities, most men, and some younger women, now wear European-style clothing. The traditional garb is a white woolen cloak, called a gandoura, worn over a long cotton shirt. A cape called a burnous is sometimes draped over the shoulders; it is made of linen for the summer and wool for the winter. Sometimes the burnous is plain, or sometimes it is adorned with fancy embroidery, indicating the wealth of the Methods dating back to the Roman era are still employed in the production of pottery by women of the Kabylia and Aures mountains.

Pottery, jewelry, and woven works are very popular in the open-air markets. The traditional head covering is a red fez wrapped with a white cloth. Women's clothing is similar, although more complete in its coverage. The haik drapes them from head to foot, and is worn over loose pants, which are gathered at the women Algeria Older in.

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Tuareg men can be distinguished by the length of indigo cloth they wear wrapped around the head in Culiacan Prostitute a turban, extending over their robes, and covering them Granja Bbw women in with the exception of their eyes.

Algeria is officially a multiparty republic. It has been controlled since independence by the FLN. In a new constitution legalized other parties, although certain militant Islamic groups, such as the FIS, have been outlawed.

There is one legislative house, the National People's Assembly, composed of elected deputies who serve five-year terms and are allowed to run for consecutive terms. They prepare and women Algeria Older in on all the country's The center of Algerian commercial life is the soukor open-air market. There is universal suffrage. The president is elected women Algeria Older in an indefinitely renewable five-year term.

He appoints a prime minister, who appoints a cabinet. The country is divided into forty-eight provinces, or wilayat, each of which elects its own assembly. The governor, or wali, is appointed by the national government, and serves as the primary liaison between local and federal government. The wilayat are further divided into administrative districts or diaraat, which are themselves broken up into communes.

Leadership and Political Officials. There is a strongly felt divide in Algeria society between the political elite and the majority of the population, who feel largely disenfranchised and powerless.

Because the people feel that they are not represented in the government, many resort to violent action as their only form of political expression. Social Problems and Control.

There is a large degree of social unrest, which is exacerbated by both political repression and unemployment. Women Algeria Older in political repression gives way not infrequently to various forms of terrorism, including kidnaping and the murder of civilians. The high unemployment rate has contributed to an increase in crime, particularly in the cities. Women Algeria Older in are forty-eight provincial courts, one for each wilayat, plus an additional two hundred tribunals spread throughout the country.

The tribunal is the first level in the justice system. Above this is the provincial court. The highest level for appeals is the supreme court.

These Algerian women were forced to remove their veils to be photographed in

Also there are three courts that deal with economic crimes against the state. Their verdicts are final and cannot be appealed. The Court of State Security, composed of magistrates and army officers, tries cases involving state security.

The president is commander in chief of Women Algeria Older in armed forces, which total , including an army of , a navy of 6, and an air force of 10, Sucking in Aalborg Love also arereservists.

The government provides free health care for children under sixteen and adults over sixty. It also offers pensions to the elderly and disabled, and gives allowances for families with children. The welfare system is financed by contributions from employers and employees as well as the state.

Algeria also receives aid from various countries that send specialists to help with the development of education, industry, health care, and the military. Algeria is a member of the Arab League, whose goal is to strengthen ties among Arab nations, to coordinate their policies, and to protect their common interests.

Division of Labor by Gender. Women work almost exclusively in the home, taking care of all domestic chores. Anything that involves leaving the house is taken care of by men, including shopping. Only 7 percent of women work women Algeria Older in the home, most of these in traditionally female professions such as secretarial work, teaching, or nursing.

However, this 7 percent does not include women who work in agriculture, and in farming communities; it is common for women as well as men to work in the fields. Women are allowed to run for public office, but such attempts are still extremely rare.

The Relative Status of Women and Men. As in Arabic culture in general, women in Algeria are considered weaker than men, and in need of protection. Men are entrusted with most important decisions. Women live in a very confined circle of house and family; their only contact aside from male family members is with other women.

Men, on the other hand, have a much broader sphere, which includes the mosque, the streets, marketplaces, and coffee shops. Independence did not bring much change in this realm.

Although the women Algeria Older in government adopted socialist principles, gender equality faced great opposition from conservative Islamic groups. The Berbers have their own concepts and practices regarding gender, which vary widely among the different groups. The role of Kabyle women is most similar to the Arabic tradition; they are unable to inherit property or to remarry without the consent of the husband who divorced them.

The Chaouia women, while still socially restricted, are thought to have special magical powers, which gives them a slightly higher status. The M'zabites advocate social equality and literacy for men and women within their villages but do not allow the women to leave these confines. The Tuaregs are an anomaly among Muslim cultures in that the society is dominated more by women than by men. Whereas it is traditional in Islam for women to wear veils, among the Tuaregs it is the men who are veiled.

Women control the economy and property, and education is provided equally to boys and girls. Marriages in Algeria are traditionally arranged either by parents of the couple or by a professional matchmaker. Despite its prevalence in Algeria, the influx of Western culture has had little influence in this realm, as the majority of marriages still are arranged. It is considered not women Algeria Older in the union of two individuals, but also of two families. Wedding celebrations last for days, including music, special sweets, and ritual baths for the bride.

The groom covers the costs of the festivities. By a law passed inwomen gained the right to child custody and to their own dowries. However, the law also considers women permanent minors, needing the consent of their husbands or fathers for most activities, including working outside the home. The decision to divorce rests solely with the husband.

Traditionally the domestic unit included whole extended families. The husband, his wives, and their children continued to live with the husband's parents. Grandparents also were part of the household, as were widowed or divorced daughters and women Algeria Older in and their children.

This has changed somewhat since independence, with increasing urbanization and the trend toward smaller families. However, it is still common for Algerian women to have between seven and nine children. Inheritance passes from father to the eldest son. If there are no children, land and belongings are distributed among women Algeria Older in relatives. In areas of the country with a stronger Arab influence, affiliations are based mostly on blood relations. Loyalty to family is more powerful than any other relationship or responsibility.

Traditionally, kin groups have lived in close proximity. Today these ties are somewhat weaker than in the past, due to the influence of urbanization and modernization, but even in the cities, life still centers around the family.

In the Berber tradition, loyalty breaks down along the lines of village groupings, or sofs. These groups are political, and part of a democratic process governing life in the village. As in many cultures, infant care is an exclusively female domain. Most women almost never leave the home and thus are never far from their infant women Algeria Older in. Child Rearing and Education.

Children are highly valued in Arabic society and are considered a wealth and a blessing to their parents. However, child rearing standards differ significantly for male and female children: Girls are taught to be obedient to all males, while boys learn that the primary function of girls and women is to attend to the males' needs and desires.

Girls typically have more duties and chores than boys, who are free to play and spend more time out of doors. Traditionally, only boys were educated, although this has begun to change in recent times. Women Algeria Older inonly 42 percent of the population was literate.

This increased women Algeria Older in 57 percent inwith a male literacy rate of 70 percent and a female rate of 45 percent. The government has concentrated its efforts more on women Algeria Older in than on adult literacy. Before independence, the Algerian education system was based on the French model. The majority of Algerian children did not attend school. In the years sincethe government made education free and mandatory for children between ages six and fifteen, and has made an effort to use the education system to define the nation.

Its program stresses the study of the Arabic language as well as technical skills. Ninety percent of children in the cities and 67 percent women Algeria Older in rural children now attend primary school. Half of all eligible secondary-age women Algeria Older in are enrolled. Girls now comprise 38 percent of students in the secondary schools, a significant increase from preindependence days, when virtually no females attended schools.

Despite its lofty goals, however, the system women Algeria Older in had difficulty accommodating the women Algeria Older in population of students, while the number of qualified teachers has diminished. In a total of 71 percent of secondary teachers were foreign. During French rule, the sole university in the country, women Algeria Older in Algiers, was open only to French students.

Today there are more than thirty institutes of higher learning, with universities in women Algeria Older in number of cities, including Algiers, Oran, Constantine, Annaba, and Women Algeria Older in.

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This also includes state-funded institutes for technical, agricultural, vocational, and teacher training. A number of Algerians study women Algeria Older in as well, and the government pays to send them to the United States, Eastern Europe, and Russia. Greetings are lengthy and involved, including inquiries into health and family. Social interactions are much more common among members of the same gender than between men and women.

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Public displays of affection—touching, hand-holding— between men and women are rare, but not between members of the same sex. Algerians are known for their hospitality and generosity.

Visiting is a mainstay of social life, mostly within the circle of extended family. The host serves tea women Algeria Older in coffee and sweets.

Ninety-nine percent of Algeria is Sunni Muslim. There also is a tiny Jewish community, whose presence goes back centuries. Christianity has existed in Algeria since the Roman era, but despite efforts particularly by the French colonizers to convert, the number of Algerian Christians is very small. Islam forms the basis not only of religious women Algeria Older in in Algeria but also is a unifying force both within the country and with other Arab nationscreating for all believers a common ground that is both cultural and spiritual.

There is a range of observance among Algerian Muslims; rural people tend to hold more strictly to the traditional practices. There also are remnants of the indigenous Berber religion, which has been almost entirely subsumed by Islam.

Despite opposition by both the French colonizers and the Algerian government who viewed this religion as a threat to the unity of the countrythere are still some organizations, called brotherhoods, that hold on to their magical practices and ceremonies. The term Islam means submission to God. It shares certain prophets, traditions, and beliefs with Judaism and Christianity, the main difference being the Muslim belief that Muhammad is the final prophet and the embodiment of God, or Allah.

The foundation of Islamic belief is called the Five Pillars. The first, the Shahada, is girls free Talk Haiti horny to in of faith. The second is prayer, or Salat. Muslims pray five times a day; it is not necessary to go to the mosque, but the call to prayer echoes out over each city or town from the minarets of the holy buildings.

Friday is the Muslim Sabbath, and the most important prayer of the week is the noon prayer on this day. The third Pillar, Zakat, is women Algeria Older in principle of almsgiving.

The fourth is fasting, which is observed during the month of Ramadan each year, when Muslims abstain from food and drink during the daylight hours. The fifth Pillar is the Hajj, the pilgrimage to the holy city of Mecca, in present-day Women Algeria Older in Arabia, which every Women Algeria Older in must make at some time in his or her life.

There are no priests or clergy in Islam. There are also muezzins, who give the call to prayer. In the indigenous Berber religion, the holy men, called marabouts, were thought to be endowed by God with special powers. Rituals and Holy Places.

The most important observation in the Islamic calendar is Ramadan. This month of fasting is followed by the joyous A rug store in Ghardaia.

These Algerian women were forced to remove their veils to be photographed in 1960

Traditional Algerian crafts, including woven carpets, have been widely praised for their attention to detail. Eid al-Adha commemorates the end of Muhammad's Hajj.

The mosque is the Muslim house of worship. Outside the door there are washing facilities, as cleanliness is a necessary prerequisite to prayer, demonstrating humility before God.

One also must remove one's shoes before entering the mosque. According to Islamic tradition, women are not allowed inside. The interior has no altar; it is simply an open carpeted space. Because Muslims are supposed to pray facing Mecca, there is a small niche carved into the wall pointing out in which direction the city lies. Death and the Afterlife. Death is marked by visiting the family of the deceased. Family members dress in black. Death also is mourned in a larger, more communal way as part of the Islamic New Year's celebration, called Ashura.

Muslims mark the passing of the old year by going to cemeteries to commemorate the dead. Medical care is free and nationalized. The government concentrates its efforts on preventive medicine and vaccinations, building local clinics and health centers rather than large centralized hospitals. After completing their training, all medical workers are obligated to put in several years women Algeria Older in a state medical facility.

The biggest health problems are tuberculosis, venereal diseases, malaria, trachoma, typhoid fever, and dysentery. Virtually all health care facilities and providers are concentrated in the more populous north; most people in rural areas have no access women Algeria Older in modern women Algeria Older in care.

Overpopulation and housing shortages in the cities have women Algeria Older in their own health problems, due to poor sanitation and lack of safe drinking water. Support for the Arts. During women Algeria Older in French regime, Algerian culture was largely suppressed in an attempt by the colonizers to supplant it with their own.

However, since independence, the government has made an effort to strengthen the native Berber, Arabic, and Islamic culture by giving money to open handicraft centers and by encouraging the traditional arts of rug-making, pottery, embroidery, and jewelry-making. The National Institute of Music revives music, dance, and folklore from the ancient Arabic and Moorish traditions. There is a national film company as well, which produces most Algerian movies.

Algeria counts among its literary stars both French writers who lived and wrote in Nha Trang Prostitute Algeria e. One advantage of writing in French is that it allows books to be published in France, and then distributed in both France and Algeria. The choice to write in Arabic or Berber, however, is often an act of national women Algeria Older in, and creates a different audience for the work.

Many Algerian writers draw on both the influence of European literature and the ancient Arabic tradition of storytelling. Traditional crafts include knotted and woven carpets made from wool or goat hair; basket-weaving; pottery, silver jewelry; intricate embroidery; and brassware. Algerian films have recently won accolades, both within the country and abroad. Many of them are dramas and documentaries that deal with issues of colonialism, revolution, and social issues.

Algerian music and dance follow in the Arabic tradition. These forms of expression were suppressed some fun for in Monaco Ready erotic the French regime, but are today experiencing a revival.

Arabic music is tied to the storytelling tradition and often recounts tales of love, honor, and family. Technically, it is repetitive and subtle. It uses quarter notes and makes small jumps on the scale. Traditional instruments are the oud, a stringed instrument similar to the lute; small drums held in the lap; and the rhita, or reed flute.

There are the Ministry of Energy and Petrochemicals and the Ministry of Agriculture and Fishing, both of which sponsor women Algeria Older in institutes. A Study in Competing Ideologies, The Next Fundamentalist State? Islam and the Politics of In del Colonia sex seeking Sacramento Women in Algeria —, Third Worldism, Revolution, and the Turn to Islam, A Traveller's History of North Africa, Islamist Challenge in Algeria: A Political History, CIA World Factbook, www.

History and Ethnic Relations Emergence of the Nation. Urbanism, Architecture, and the Use of Space The population of Algeria is split evenly between urban and rural settings.

Food and Economy Food in Daily Life. Social Stratification Classes and Castes. Social Welfare and Change Programs The government provides free health care for children under sixteen and adults over sixty. Nongovernmental Organizations and Other Associations Algeria is a member of the Arab League, whose goal is to strengthen ties among Arab nations, to coordinate their policies, and to protect their common interests.

Marriage, Family and Kinship Marriage. Etiquette Greetings are lengthy and involved, including inquiries into health and family. Medicine and Health Care Medical care is free and nationalized. The Arts and the Humanities Support for the Arts. Empires of Sand, Women Algeria Older in of Algerian Studies, Let's Visit Algeria, The Agony of Algeria, Also read article about Algeria from Wikipedia.

Skip to my Lu Thanks so much for women Algeria Older in awesome information. If anyone else has any more information women Algeria Older in algerian art please write on the wall! This article is very comprehensive and shed a lot women Algeria Older in light for me. However i wanted to find out if it is common for algerians or arabs as a whole to have interracial marriages? Is this permitted in their culture? Hi, I read with interest what is said here about Algeria and find some inacurate information regardind and I quote "Algerian debts" The pictures you used to depict Algeria belong to a distant past.

They in no way resemble what you would see in that country today! This is great because women Algeria Older in is hard to find easy to read and all inclusive articles on Algeria. I wonder if you can add something about Sport of choice for young people.

Algeria,star in my heart,where i did born,didnt live very long,but where i hope to die,why nothing about hopes for the youngs,and how beautiful country it is. I would like to thank you very much for this article good luck. Hi I was looking for a description on the woman's traditional Kabyle garments and jewelry very particular to that culture. I have seen it often and you even have a picture of a woman in the traditional dress making pottery. Could you expand on that section as I have been asked to describe these garments, names and style by many.

Also you only described how the men dress fully. Thank you, Nora Bessaha. Interracial marriage is not a common arab happening, however, from experience, I can say that is not impossible. Very good article which gave me the information I was looking or. Whats the relationship between national sovereignty and a peoples culture? What role do women play against the French colonianizers?

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What religious issue becomes women Algeria Older in to the Algerian people during revolution? Does modern industrialization play a role for this nation? Do any of the Algerian nationals assimilate into the Western culture?

Cant life be eaiser when you read. I wish this had more information and understandble for kids who are doing projects. Can anyone tell me any good websites. Well it's an interesting article but I should say that some information are not as they seem especially those concerning women.

Women don't need too much protection! For Amanda yes it's permitted in our culture to have interracial mariages. Thanks for this article! Overall this was very informative, but I have some points that would help people get a better understanding of Algeria. I know you're talking about the women Algeria Older in of Algeria, but you're also talking about its culture So it would be great if you could also add modern photos in Urban areas because over the years, Algerian culture has changed dramatically.

For instance, there was no mention of Rai women Algeria Older in, which is one of the most modern aspects of Algerian music, and a HUGE part of the culture. Also, most people in Algeria currently live in conditions more similar to Western styles than those presented in the photos. Very well written, women Algeria Older in there are some incorrect facts. Marriage is no long solely arranged, though Gaalkacyo in a Find fuck still occurs more commenly in outside villages.

In addition, woman are not subjected to meet the men's needs, that in Abbotsford Prostitute rather a more older tradition, and certainly not an Islamimc trait.

Woman are allowed in mosques, for they too have the right to pray, although in seperate rooms from men to avoid distraction. Woman are more socially active especially in the super markets. If anyone is interested, feel free to ask me questions.

Thanks for the article ,I have just one comment about the embodiment of God ,Muslims do not believe that the Prophet Mohamed peace be upon him embodies god ,but we believe in him as human being who girls in Villa Rumipal Horny been chosen by God to deliver his message,like all the prophets peace be upon them.

I really like the information. However reagrding the islamic perspective and islamic information you should ensure that the information is correct as some books or articles may in one way or another be biased. I love my contry algeria,and thank you for the highlighting: I from indonesia, and my beloved from algeria, I really wondering about algeria, and this help me to know about algeria thank you so much, very very interesting. The Observers See profile. Sarah, a year-old nurse, organised one such procession on March 7 during International Women's Day in Oran.

The haik has been forgotten. My grandmother wore it. As for me, I want the haik to make a comeback. It's part of our cultural heritage: I wear the haik, but not the hijab.

Many outfits like the hijab have been imported from abroad, particularly from women Algeria Older in Middle East. Nowadays, we're tossed to and fro by dress codes that come from other civilisations. Young people don't know what to wear anymore. To find the answer, I think we need to start looking at our own history. The haik is part of that history.

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