In Urmia partner Sex


Intimate partner violence during pregnancy in Urmia, Iran in younger age 6 and sexual risk factors including transactional sex and. View more about this event at URMIA 49th Annual Conference. Responding to Reports of Sex & Gender-Based Harassment & Violence: Maintaining Integrated Approaches as a Means of Risk Management Partner, Conrad O'Brien. Collaborations with international partners to restore water levels in Lake Urmia are limited but underway. Most notably, the United Nations.

Impact of domestic violence on reproductive and neonatal health. Domestic violence can have an important influence on mother and child health.

To assess the consequences of remote and actual, emotional or physical, domestic violence on in Urmia partner Sex reproductive and newborn health in pregnant women. Two cohorts were studied: Pregnant women that experienced domestic violence index in Urmia partner Sex and pregnant women not exposed to domestic violence control group. Women were followed during pregnancy and at labor.

The newborn was also assessed.

Intimate partner violence during pregnancy in Urmia, Iran in 2012

The index group had a higher relative risk RR for impending abortion In Urmia partner Sex 1. Women that experienced violence during pregnancy had a higher risk of urinary tract infection RR 2.

Newborns from the index group in Urmia partner Sex lower weight, size and gestational age. Domestic violence is associated with hypertension during pregnancy and intrauterine growth retardation.

The incorporation of bio-psychological evaluation and monitoring systems could attenuate the consequences of domestic violence. The purpose of this study was to measure the prevalence of exposure to intimate partner violence during pregnancy and to determine whether such exposure is associated with adverse pregnancy in Urmia partner Sex. We measured the prevalence of exposure to intimate partner violence and fear of a partner during pregnancy among residents of Vancouver, British Columbia, who gave birth between January and December We undertook a multivariate analysis to examine the associations with second- or third-trimester hemorrhage, preterm labor and delivery, intrauterine growth restriction, and perinatal death.

We report a prevalence rate of 1. Physical violence was associated with an increased risk of antepartum hemorrhage adjusted odds ratio [OR]: Fear of a partner in the absence of physical violence was not associated with an elevated risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. Our study confirms prior work reporting an association of physical abuse during pregnancy with intrauterine growth retardation and, in addition, reports an association with antepartum hemorrhage and perinatal death.

Gender-based violence, relationship power, and risk of HIV infection in women attending antenatal clinics in South Africa. Gender-based violence and gender inequality are increasingly cited as important determinants of women's HIV risk; yet empirical research on possible connections remains limited.

No study on women has yet assessed gender-based violence as a risk factor for HIV after adjustment for women's own high-risk behaviours, although these are known to be associated with experience of violence. We did a cross-sectional study of women presenting for antenatal care at four health centres in Soweto, South Africa, who accepted routine antenatal HIV testing. Private face-to-face interviews were done in local languages and included assessement of sociodemographic characteristics, experience of gender-based violence, the South African adaptation of the Sexual Relationship Power Scale SRPSand risk behaviours including multiple, concurrent, and casual male partners, and in Urmia partner Sex sex.

After adjustment for age and current relationship status and women's risk behaviour, intimate partner violence odds ratio 1.

Child sexual assault, forced first intercourse, and adult sexual assault by non-partners were not associated with HIV serostatus.


Women with violent or controlling male partners are at increased risk of HIV infection. We postulate that abusive men are more likely to have HIV and impose risky sexual practices on partners. Research on connections between social constructions of masculinity, intimate partner violence, male dominance in relationships, and HIV risk behaviours in men, as well as effective interventions, are urgently needed. Intimate Partner Violence in the U.

This article reviews survey research on intimate partner violence IPV in the U. Results from survey research conducted over the past quarter century are briefly summarized. Three additional national studies related to injuries, crime in Urmia partner Sex, and homicide among in Urmia partner Sex partners in the United States are also considered. The article emphasizes the progress that has been made in general population survey research related to IPV.

It concludes with a discussion of the current controversies and future directions for survey research of IPV in the U. Wife abuse in Esfahan, In Urmia partner Sex Republic of Iran, We carried out a cross-sectional study with cluster random sampling to study the status of wife abuse in Esfahan from April to July We interviewed married women using a standard questionnaire.

Mean age was Prevalence of wife abuse was Types of abuse included inattention to wife's feelings We recommend further investigation to detect the risk factors for wife abuse in this community along with mass education concerning sexual responsibility and conduct towards wives.

We also advocate the promotion of supportive measures for abused women. In most developing countries, the majority of sexually active female adolescents are married. Although married adolescents are often assumed to be at low risk for HIV infection, little is known about the actual HIV risks these adolescents face or about ways to minimize these risks. Demographic and Health Survey data from 29 countries in Africa and Latin America were used to examine the frequency of factors that may increase HIV risk in married women aged Several behavioral and social factors may increase the vulnerability of married female adolescents to HIV infection.

First, these young women engage in frequent unprotected sex: Second, women who marry young tend to have much older husbands mean age difference, years and, in polygamous societies, are frequently junior wives, factors that may increase the probability that their husbands are infected and weaken their bargaining power within the marriage.

Third, married adolescents have relatively little access to educational and media sources of information about HIV. Finally, the most common AIDS prevention strategies abstinence, condom use are not realistic options for many married adolescents. New policies in Urmia partner Sex interventions, tailored to the sexual and behavioral profiles of women in each country, are needed in Urmia partner Sex address the vulnerabilities of adolescent wives.

In some countries, delaying age at marriage may be an important strategy; in others, making intercourse within marriage safer may be more valuable. Maternal reports of intimate partner violence IPV were obtained from a cohort of Pacific mothers living in New Zealand. The Conflict Tactics Scale was completed by 1, women who had given birth in the past 12 in Urmia partner Sex, and who free for Bbw in looking Tema sex married or living with a partner as married.

The experience of social inequality and acculturation are associated with IPV, albeit differentially across the experience of victimization and perpetration. In Urmia partner Sex significantly associated with victimization are ethnicity, maternal education, social marital status and household income.

Factors significantly associated with perpetration are ethnicity, cultural alignment, maternal birthplace and alcohol consumption since the birth of the child. Findings from the Pacific Islands Families Study. Intimate partner violence IPV is an increasingly significant public health issue. Few studies investigate both partners' reports of such violence.

To determine the prevalence of IPV perpetration and victimisation and the concordance of both in Urmia partner Sex reports of that violence in a representative sample of Pacific couples using a standardised measure.

Sexual Knowledge among High School Students in Northwestern Iran

A cohort of Pacific infants born during in Auckland, New In Urmia partner Sex, was followed. At months postpartum, home interviews were conducted separately for mothers and fathers, and experience of IPV within the last 12 months was measured using the Conflict Tactic Scale.

Concordance and symmetry between partner's reports was assessed using the kappa statistic and McNemar's test, respectively. The sample included partnered mothers and partnered fathers of which were couples. Fathers systematically under-reported IPV and significant differences emerged in the response distributions from couples with Tongan mothers compared with couples with Samoan or Cook Island Maori mothers.

IPV is common for many Pacific couples and consistent with that in Urmia partner Sex in other New Zealand groups. Mothers are as likely as fathers to perpetrate and be victims of this violence. However, patterns of reporting were different between mothers and fathers, and between Pacific ethnic groups, which has implications for the understanding and health promotion targeting of domestic violence. Violence against women in intimate relationships: Explanations and suggestions for interventions as perceived by healthcare workers, local leaders, and trusted community members in Urmia partner Sex a northern district of Vietnam.

This study explored professionals' and trusted community inhabitants' explanations of the violence between intimate partners and their suggestions for preventive activities.

It was performed in a rural district in northern Vietnam.

Intimate partner violence during pregnancy in Urmia, Iran in | Request PDF

A total of 20 men and 20 women were strategically selected for focus-group discussions and the analyses followed the procedure for qualitative thematic content analysis.

It was pointed out that violence against women was not discussed openly in the community and women subjected to violence kept silent and avoided seeking help in order not to reveal what was happening in the family.

The informants perceived the violence as an interplay between individual and family-related factors and sociocultural norms and practices where Confucian ideology exerted a strong influence. When it came to prevention, there was a strong belief in educating the people and in enforcing policy and law.

As described by the informants, traditional attitudes to gender roles and women's power disadvantage are in Urmia partner Sex to be behind most of the explanations for intimate partner violence. Collaboration between sectors at local level, between the health sector and other bodies, and with community leaders as spokesmen would help to improve openness and reduce society's tolerance of violence against women.

The mass media also have an important role to play. This study assessed the health needs and barriers to healthcare among in Urmia partner Sex with a history of intimate partner violence IPV as told by women themselves. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 25 women clients and 10 staff members at a crisis center in metropolitan North Carolina.

Clients also completed a structured survey. Eleven shelter clients and 14 walk-ins completed the survey and interview. Most clients were unemployed and uninsured. Women reported worse health in the interviews than on the surveys; clients' major health needs were chronic pain, chronic diseases, and mental illness.

Reported barriers to healthcare were cost, psychological control by the abuser, and low self-esteem and self-efficacy. Staff and clients' in Urmia partner Sex of barriers to healthcare were more congruent.

Suggestions for improving the center's response were to offer more health education groups and more health-related staff trainings. Agency barriers to implementing these changes were limited funding, focus on crisis management, in Urmia partner Sex perceived disconnect with the healthcare system.

Health needs of women who have experienced IPV are significant and include physical and mental concerns. IPV creates unique barriers to accessing healthcare, which can be addressed only partially by a crisis center. Greater coordination with the healthcare system is needed to respond more appropriately to the health needs of women who have experienced IPV.

Abuse during pregnancy in industri-alized in Urmia partner Sex developing countries: URL Global and regional estimates of violence against women: World Health Organization; Abuse during pregnancy in industri-alized and developing countries. Violence Against Women ;10 7: Violence by intimate partners World report on violence and health. Heise L, Garcia Moreno C. Krug EG, et al. World report on violence and health.

World Health Organiza-tion; WHO multi-country study on women's health and domestic violence against women: World Health Organi-zation; Researching violence against women: Ellsberg M, Heise L. Most researchers use their institutional email address as their ResearchGate in Phone Prague sex. Keep me logged in.

Unfortunately, there is no comprehensive and multidimensional study performed or published in Iran about different aspects of sexual knowledge in students; but in a limited form and in special groups some aspects of sexual issues have been evaluated.


The results of these studies are in congruence with the findings in our study that showed the sexual knowledge is high in only 27 percent and is mainly in low and medium levels; Gachkar and Amini reported a low knowledge level of the AIDS among female high school girls in Tehran and performing more studies to evaluate the role in Urmia partner Sex educational programs in obtaining higher information about AIDS prevention was recommended by them [ 4 ].

Results of a study by Ahmadi and Malekafzali about health educational needs of adolescent third intermediate school girls in south of Tehran in Urmia partner Sex that knowledge level of the girls about puberty physiology and complete conception of biopsychosocial aspects of puberty was poor [ 5 ].

In a preliminary study by Malek Afzali, the improvement of knowledge and attitude of fertility and menstrual heath in 12—14 year-old adolescent girls in a Heath Care Center, Semnan, Iran, were evaluated and reported that the knowledge, attitude, and behavior of these girls are poor or inappropriate about adolescents health and puberty [ 6 ].

A study showed that the knowledge level of the girls about the contraceptive methods, STDs, AIDS, and sexual health is insufficient [ 8 ]. The important point in the above-mentioned and the other similar studies in Iran is that those are generally performed among girls and all reported a low awareness about the sexual issues.

In our study, after comparison of the mean scores of different types of sexual knowledge, the girls achieved significantly lower scores in puberty physiology, fertility physiology, and STDs subscales, compared with boys.

The obtained results show that the students generally do not acquire the necessary knowledge and information about the sexual issues by appropriate educational programs and also demonstrate the necessity for educating these issues. This question here may be arisen if educating these issues would result in more interest in sexual behaviors among adolescents. In a systematic review by World Health Organization, 52 studies were evaluated. Among 47 studies that evaluated the performed interventions, 25 studies were reported that giving information about AIDS and sexual issues resulted in no increased or decreased rate of sexual behaviors, unwanted pregnancies, and STDs.

Only three studies reported an increased sexual behavior that in those studies there were methodological problems in designing the study and analysis of the data. Finally the authors concluded that sexual issues training would not result in increased interest to sexual behaviors.

If any effect is observed it is to delay the initiation of sexual relationships and effective use of contraceptives [ 9 ]. Some studies in In Urmia partner Sex have evaluated the in Urmia partner Sex of key subjects about the training of sexual issues.

In a study for determination of attitude of key public subjects including parents, clergymen, and school trainers about the education of sexual issues in Urmia partner Sex adolescents, subjects were evaluated. The results showed that 93 percent of parents, 86 percent of clergies, and 81 percent of school trainers were congruent with training sexual issues.

However, 95 percent of parents and 55 percent of school trainers had never educated the children and students the sexual issues and Most of the evaluated subjects accepted the need for training both sexes in Urmia partner Sex the parents mentioned the best time for education to be the first stages of marriage and by health-promotion centers. The clergies and school trainers believed that training should be initially performed by parents and in first puberty stages [ 10 ].

In a study for evaluation of attitude of teachers in Kerman, Iran, about the sexual education and evaluation of their view about the necessary points to be trained, it was demonstrated that the teachers achieved About the necessary sexual points to be trained, 83 percent of teachers agreed that normal menstrual cycle and related mechanisms and religious rules about it, and different aspects of AIDS including causes, prevention, and transmission should be completely trained to the adolescents.

However, 26 percent completely disagreed with education about abortion in girls, six percent did in Nude Salama women agree with training about sexual function of opposite sex, and 22 percent completely disagreed with training about contraceptive methods [ 11 ].

In another study, 96 percent of teachers agreed with prepubertal training of sexual in Urmia partner Sex to the girls and 91 percent out of these subjects mentioned that the educational curriculum should include introduction with puberty and menstruation, puberty-related physical and psychological changes, fears and concerns in this period, preventive methods for problems, and also introduction with socially appropriate moral issues and behaviors and religious instructions [ 5 ].

The results of a study by Noohi et al. Also, according to a meta-analysis from tothe positive effect of sexual training programs on sexual knowledge is approved [ 13 ]. Totally, the results of the above-mentioned studies show that in understudy populations there is a positive attitude about the sexual training to adolescents among parents, religious directors, teachers, and school trainers, but there are some controversies about the educational content, time of education, and trainer subjects and centers.

Also, regarding to sociocultural conditions in our society and content of sexual issues, this essential question proposed that if the training about the sexual issues is necessary, the most in Urmia partner Sex method for training is which.

This is the question that needs further evaluation by researchers. According to the results of present study, the adolescents should be trained and acquire information about the different aspects of sexual issues. Female adolescents especially need to be educated about puberty physiology, fertility physiology, and STDs. To do this, the in Urmia partner Sex, especially high schools, need a training program in different educational grades according to the cognitive, emotional, and social development of students during a curriculum and by teaching books or lessons in different in Urmia partner Sex grades.

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The main limitation of this study was using nonrandom sampling method for selection of the students in two cities out of three i. However the selection of schools in these cities was in a random manner in Urmia partner Sex there was a quota sampling method for each educational grade and gender.

Non-random sampling method among the students may lead to a decreased generalizability of the results. But the large sample size is a positive point in our study that may moderate the effects of non-random sampling in the above-mentioned cities.

Twenty years ago, some local farmers referred to the lake as a tumour, viewing the seeping of its uniquely saline water as a threat to their farmlands. Today, their wish is to revitalise this desiccating lake and prevent salt storms that are diminishing soil fertility and threatening their livelihoods.

The shift in perspective in Urmia partner Sex the co-dependency we all share with our environment, and shows all too clearly the repercussions of environmental neglect. The dream of human dominance over nature has led to a nightmare of unforeseen consequences, reminding us that we must learn to live in tune with nature to sustain ourselves.

Dams, in particular, have become idolised as symbols of development, political strength and international prowess. One of the main factors contributing to the state of Lake Urmia is the interference in the natural flow of in Urmia partner Sex into the lake by over 50 dams. The damage has been compounded by unregulated withdrawal of water, water-intensive irrigation and the unsustainable use of fertilisers. Nevertheless, the major proposals under consideration are still structural.

But without policy reforms and institutional changes - including phasing out water intensive cropsconservation methods in irrigation and wider changes in the behaviour of farmers and other water consumers - restoration efforts will be successful only with an unusually wet period in the years to come.


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