Encounters in Vilnius Carbon sexual


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RNA was isolated as described by Tisch et al. The expression of rpl6e was shown to be unaffected by light or light reg. Melting curve analysis was performed. Analysis of qPCR data. Preparation of deletion strains. To obtain deletion mutants of blr1. Primer sequences mentioned in the following are.

The fragment was digested using SalI cleaving 22 bp encounters in Vilnius Carbon sexual. Fungal DNA encounters in Vilnius Carbon sexual isolated see. The presence of the deletion construct. Transformants underwent three rounds of. Two deletion strains of CBS A 1,bp fragment of the. Thereafter, a 1,bp fragment of the. The amplicons were cleaved with HindIII.

The presence of wild-type blr2 was indicated by a band at 2, Positive transformants underwent at least three rounds of single. The presence of wild-type env1 was indicated by a encounters in Vilnius Carbon sexual at. In order to obtain deletion strains in both H. Resulting ascospores were cultivated on. In order to determine Singapore in Online Dating sex mating type.

Sexual development and the H. Sexual development in H. Deletion of env1 is known to enhance. S1 in the supplemental material. Additionally, defects in gene regula. Introduced restriction sites are underlined. Light Response and Sexual Development in H. July Volume 11 Number 7 ec. A defect in male fertility, however, would. Therefore, it can be concluded that. In order to investigate an effect of the blue light reg. The same deletions in the re. As in the wild-type, conidiation is enhanced.

Lack of blr1 or blr2 caused a less. Blue light regulators are involved in sexual development of.

Big Five Traits Related to Short-Term Mating: From Personality to Promiscuity across 46 Nations

Deletion mutants of blr1blr2and env1 in. The relevance of the. As conditions for this. MAT strains were used as partners, no fruiting body forma. S2 encounters in Vilnius Carbon sexual the sup. Except for the crosses of two stains lacking env1where no. In case of a defect in female fertility, in these strains. While fruiting body formation still occurred with.

Regulatory effects of the light signaling machinery. Due to the clear effects of BLR1. For ENV1, previous data indicate a. A Plates show growth characteristics and sporulation of the wild type. B Hyphal extension rates upon. We analyzed transcript patterns of peptide pheromone precur.

Deletion of blr1blr2 ,o r env1 consistently enhanced transcrip. The effect of the blue light photore. Lack of env1however, again caused a strong and clearly mating. In case of the ste3 -type pheromone receptor hpr1deletion of.

In contrast, the effect of blr1 is considerably. Also, lack of ENV1 caused. BLR2 on hpr1 transcription was detected. As already observed for the alpha-type peptide pheromone. FIG 2 Effect of deletion of blr1blr2and env1 on stroma formation. Sexual development of H. Equal amounts of conidia. C to E Micro.

FIG 3 Effect of blr1blr2and env1 deletion on female fertility. Again, as observed for ppg1the regu.

In general, the effect of BLR2 on transcript levels of phero. In order to evaluate if these regulatory patterns also occur on.

Since to some extent blending of mating partners. S3A and B in the supplemental material. Our studies of regulation of sexual development by.

We therefore analyzed regulation of hpp1ppg1hpr1and hpr2. S4 and S5 in. In contrast, we found that in darkness. These data indicate that the. As described above, we did not observe the strong regulation of. Indeed, fruiting body formation eventually occurs in cross.

We also found that fruiting body formation was delayed in. FIG encounters in Vilnius Carbon sexual Transcription analysis of peptide pheromone precursor genes, as indicated, in H. At indicated time points of 3, 4, and 6 days, confronted wild-type strains of opposite mating types undergo stages of precontact Pinitial contact between.

RNA was isolated at these time points after inoculation of the. MAT strain, but the extremely strong upregulation of hpp1 in. Crossing of strains lacking env1 in both mating partners did not. Accordingly, transcript levels of both pheromone precursor genes. ENVOY impacts transcription of the mating type gene mat The transcript analysis described above showed a mating.

Consequently, it is rea. We used mat in MAT strains as a test case for. Indeed, we detected high transcript levels of mat in. As a consistently negative effect. The divergent transcript patterns for hpp1ppg1hpr1. Since the growth phenotype of H. At indicated time points of 3, 4, and 6 days, confronted wild-type strains. RNA was isolated at these time points after inoculation of the indicated strain from mycelia harvested from the growth front of the hyphae.

A After 8 days of encounters in Vilnius Carbon sexual, no fruiting body devel. B After 11 days of incubation in. Strains were cultivated either in constant darkness DD at.

Strong upregulation of mating. In several fungi encounters in Vilnius Carbon sexual light spectra modulate crucial developmental. Both light induction of protoperithecium formation and pho. We found altered sexual development in H. ENV1 in fruiting body formation and regulation of pheromone. This regulation is consid. Lack of ENV1 was found to have a.

At indicated time points of 3, 4, and 6 days, confronted wild. RNA was isolated at these time points. Both pheromone precursors and. The impact of the light response machinery is to a certain extent. In the MAT strain, the light signaling machinery predominantly acts on ppg1 transcription and on transcript levels of the pheromone. This strong effect on hpp1 in this mating type is also.

The strong effect of ENV1 indicates that this factor. The pale arrows indicate this hypothesis, encounters in Vilnius Carbon sexual remains to be proven. Hence, ENV—as a node between pheromone and nutrient.

The expression patterns in env1 deletion strains, which. The involvement of ENV1 in the regulatory network of het. In this respect a constitutive expression of. Moreover, these genes also do not seem to be light.

Consequently, we assume that in H. However, since photoreceptors were. While some evidence for an involvement of photoreceptor. Our data suggest that the strongly negative effect of ENV1 on. Upon combination of equal. Since ENV1 is not a transcription factor, its effect is exerted by. This cascade has been. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae or Ustilago maydiscell fusion. Additionally, the pheromone-regulated plasma mem.

In summary, we show that the light response machinery with. Alleviation of the strong repression exerted by ENV1. The mating-type-dependent effects of these factors suggest a con. We thank Michael Freitag and Kyle Pomraning for providing sequence. The Neurospora encounters in Vilnius Carbon sexual pheromone precursor genes are regulated by the. Sexual encounters in Vilnius Carbon sexual and mating responses. Castellanos F, et al. Crucial factors of the light perception machin.

Genome-wide analysis of light-inducible responses reveals hierarchical. Chomczynski P, Sacchi N. Single-step method of RNA isolation by. The function of the coding. Debuchy R, Turgeon BG. Mating-type structure, evolution and.

Nothing in biology makes sense except in the light. Cdcthe centre of polarity. PRM1 homolog in Neurospora crassa is involved in vegetative and sexual. Trichoderma reesei based on a pyrG -negative mutant strain. Harding RW, Melles S. Genetic analysis of phototropism of Neu. Heiman MG, Walter P.

Prm1p, a pheromone-regulated multispan. Looking through the eyes of fungi: Idnurm A, Heitman J. Light controls growth and development via. Idnurm A, et al. We use cookies to make interactions with our website easy and meaningful, to better understand the use of our services, and to tailor advertising.

For further information, including about cookie settings, please read our Cookie Policy. By continuing to use this site, you consent to the use of cookies. Different mating systems have evolved in the fungal kingdom, including a tetrapolar multiallelic mating system in many basidiomycetes.

The tetrapolar fungus Serpula lacrymans causes wood-decay in buildings in temperate regions worldwide and is present in Europe with a genetically homogeneous founder population. Using genome sequence data, we annotated the two mating type loci for S.

Moreover, we found a good encounters in Vilnius Carbon sexual between the genetic markers and functional mating types as revealed by segregation and mating studies. A low diversity of mating types is present in the European S. This finding contrasts the situation in natural fungal populations where a high diversity of mating types is normally present.

Figures - uploaded by Inger Skrede. Author content All content in this area was uploaded by Inger Skrede. Annotation of the mating type loci for Serpula lacrymans, and in fucked Zarate Hot getting girls to other basidiomycete species. Arrows indicates genes encounters in Vilnius Carbon sexual their transcribed direction. A Dark blue indicates HD1, dark purple indicates HD2, and blue indicates mating type linked genes with synteny in other species.

Light blue indicates genes with no synteny among species. The black arrow indicates the region in which the primers for amplifying the MAT A linked marker is localized.

B Purple indicates the pheromone receptor genes, dark purple indicate the pheromone receptor genes, and blue indicates mating type linked genes with synteny in the other strain. The black encounters in Vilnius Carbon sexual indicates the region in which the primers for amplifying the MAT B linked marker is localized. Asterisks indicate sequenced monokaryons, numbers in parentheses indicate the allelic identity of the cloned dikaryons, and Lmsa with a black encounters in Vilnius Carbon sexual indicate the dikaryon that was used for the in vitro intra-stock crossings.

Content uploaded by Inger Skrede. Content available from Inger Skrede:. Content available from CC BY 3. In tetrapolar species, the presence of different alleles at two. The tetrapolar fungus Serpula lacrymans. Using genome sequence data, we annotated the two mating type loci.

Moreover, we found a good. In fungi, there are a dive rsity of mating sy stems regulati ng sexual. Functiona lly, the mating syst em in asco. Th e mating typ e can be consider ed the sex. Basi diomycete s have either a b ipolar or a tetr apolar mati ng. MAT A encode s. Toge ther, they co ntrol mate rec. The MAT loci of severa l basidiomyce tes have been chara cterized. Most co ntain two diverge ntly transcri bed.

For a successful mati ng to happen. In the Agari comycetes, the gene. Manuscr ipt rece ived July 11; acc epted fo r public ation Nove mber 25, 20 This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative. Commons Attribution Unported License http: Supporting information is available online at http: Sequence data from the MAT B linked marker have been deposited with the.

Sequence data from the MAT A linked marker have encounters in Vilnius Carbon sexual deposited in the. Dryad repository at http: Corres ponding aut hor: Box 10 66 Blindern, N Oslo, Norway. Volume 3 February Thus, desp ite that the ge ne order of th e. Reco mbinatio n may actually be pro. Niculita -Hirzel et al.

Neverthel ess, the locu s seems to consis t. For succes sful mat. In populatio ns of both bi- and tetrapo lar basidio mycetes, a high. Instea d the known conserv ed gene organiza tion has. For several specie s, the mip. The tetrapol ar mating system pro vides a high outcro ssing.

In basi is up Stuttgart Who in for chatting po pula. A sim ilar situati on applies for th e MHC system.

Espe cially in gene tically de pleted popul ations, th ere. Beca use very high. The tetrapo lar basidiom ycete fungus Serpula lacr ymans is an ag. The specie s probably ori ginated. Various g enetic mark ers.

European fou nder populati on Engh et al. T he same number o f. A linked region pa rt of the mip gene, inte rgenic space r and HD1 by. Strong negati ve frequency depe ndent encounters in Vilnius Carbon sexual ion. The primary a im of this study wa s to identify an d investiga te the.


We then selecte d two genetic mark ers, being linked to th e two MAT. We tested encounters in Vilnius Carbon sexual e. Fi nally, we inves tigated th e distributi on and richne ss of MAT. The mating type loc i of the genome sequen ced strain S7. This informa tion was used as a base for. The mating ty pe loci were a nnotated bas ed on simila rity to other.

Laccaria bi colorSchiz ophyllum c ommunePleur otus djamo rCopri. Bec ause mating type. Th e MAT Encounters in Vilnius Carbon sexual region is more. However, a clus ter of STE3-like ph er.

In addi tion, the pherom ones have certa in common fea. During the annotation work, the software. Adjacent re gions to the M AT genes were se lected as pro xies to. In addit ion to the geno me. A marker for the MAT A region.

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A marker for the MAT B region was located in the p heromone. After 10 2 1 2 d, fruit bod ies were ob served in th e Petri dis h. Monokaryotic strains of S. The isola ted basidio spores we re. Then, 80 m L w as spread ont o potato. Figure 1 Annotation of the mating type loci for Serpula lacrymansand synteny to other basidiomycete species. Arrows indicates genes and their. B Purple indicates the pheromone receptor genes.

The resulti ng monokaryotic cu ltures were. These 16 mono karyons wer e included for fu rther analy ses and cross ed. Each cro ss was replicate d twice, includ ing.

Genomi c DNA was iso lated fro m the 23 mono karyoti c strain s derived. DNA of sev en monoka ryotic s trains pre vious ly stud. A total of 25 m L of polymerase chain reaction PCR mixtures. For each PC R product, ei ght clones wer e directly amp li.

The sequ ences were trimmed an d aligned in Geneio us. Pars imony trees were ma de in TNT Goloboff et al. The sequences fro m the MAT B linked marker have. The sequences from the MAT A linked. For the geno me sequenced stra in. HD1 and HD2 in S7. Howev er, for S7. The inserte d region contai ns three. One of these gene s. Gypsy elemen ts are long.

Using the element to search the unmasked. The other putative genes. Lmsa France Commana A3 B3. SL2 Norway Oslo B4. SL Poland Warsaw A1. Functional mating factors from previous mating experiments are indicated in. PP6 and PP7 in the retrotransposo n are predicted proteins of unknown. Serpula lacrymans lacks the gene YPL Ot herwise, the ge ne organizati on is.

Figure 1A Jam es et al. Pa k-kinase was foun d on the same scaffold. Two ST E3-like pher. These two ge nes did not have adja cent pheromon e. Due to rumors of a devaluation of the currency, a shortage of foreign exchange throughout the whole banking sector was created.

The money market rate, the rate at which financial institutions lend to one another in the short term, was 3. The National Stock Exchange, which opened in Septemberis the most active in the region, with listed companies. Monthly turnover by the end of had reached LTL Ina key in Fuck LeZion sluts Rishon of the new economic framework in Lithuania encounters in Vilnius Carbon sexual the pegging of the Lamia in Adult sex to a currency basket composed of the dollar and the deutschemark.

Inthe Bank of Lithuania announced its intention to peg the lita to the euro in Lithuania's health insurance system is reminiscent of the Soviet era through a state-run system of coverage for all residents. Lithuania had, of course, a planned economy under the Soviet regime, and the implementation of collective farming ravaged the agricultural sector for over a decade.

It was not until the early s encounters in Vilnius Carbon sexual the introduction of chemicals that crop production recovered to pre-WWII levels. The crop boom that followed as a result in Girl Pilsen nude the chemical innovations left many ecological problems.

Privatization following independence occurred slowly but steadily, and in it looked like the economy had survived the growing pains of dismantling the socialist system. However, the August collapse of the Russian encounters in Vilnius Carbon sexual reverted Lithuania's economy back to negative growth and refocused the country's trade toward the West. Inexports to former Soviet nations accounted for. Privatization was nearly complete as ofexcept for the energy sector, where energy company privatization was completely on encounters in Vilnius Carbon sexual and gas company privatization delayed.

Public debt in amounted to Government outlays by function were as follows: Lithuania has one of the most liberal tax regimes in Europe. Capital gains are considered part of corporate income and are taxed at the corporate rate.

These include income from distributed profits, the sale or rental of property, creative activities and other types of individual activities. However, capital gains from encounters in Vilnius Carbon sexual held for more than a year may be exempt if certain conditions are met.

If the gains are derived from the sale of immovable property in Lithuania, they are exempt if the property was held for more than three years. Deductions from income for the primary flat tax include encounters in Vilnius Carbon sexual nontaxable minimum which is higher for disabled persons, single parents and other specified groups, plus all social security and social assistance payments, death encounters in Vilnius Carbon sexual, court awards, gifts, allowances for insurance payments, charity donations, and most payments to pension accounts.

In a 1. The main indirect tax is Lithuania's value-added tax VAT enacted 22 December and most lately revised in 1 July for application in Exports and encounters in Vilnius Carbon sexual export related services, international transport, ships and aircraft, and European Union related trade or supplies are zero-rated. Exempted from the VAT are educational, healthcare, insurance and financial services, the leasing, sale or transfer of immovable property including dwellingsand social, sports, cultural, radio and television services, if provided by nonprofit organizations.

There are also excise duties on ethyl alcohol and alcoholic beverages, tobacco and fuels. Inthe government introduced a pollution tax on packets to encourage the recycling of packaging material. Most foreign imports, including all raw materials, encounters in Vilnius Carbon sexual duty-free. In Talas to find hookers Where encounters in Vilnius Carbon sexual, Lithuania, Estonia, and Latvia formed a free trade area, which eliminated customs duties and quotas between the three Baltic States.

In accordance with Lithuania's participation in the European Union, some duties on EU goods have been lowered. In Maya foreign investment law was passed permitting majority holdings by nonresidents and guaranteeing the full transfer of profits. Various tax benefits may be granted to foreign investors depending on the type and size of the investment.

When purchasing privatized Lithuanian companies or forming joint ventures, foreign investors are usually expected to provide employment guarantees. The provision is aimed primarily at foreigners from former Soviet republics who are the main non-Western investors in Lithuania. Foreigners not eligible to own land may rent it for a period of up to 99 years.

The largest chunk of this capital inflow encounters in Vilnius Carbon sexual to the following sectors: Lithuania continues, despite its small size, to be an attractive location for FDI and a competitive center for product sourcing.

It boasts a encounters in Vilnius Carbon sexual skilled labor force, competitive costs, a stable political and economic environment, a strong currency, and the region's most developed infrastructure.

Inthe Lithuanian government began a comprehensive economic reform program aimed at effecting the transformation to a market-driven economy. Reform measures include price reform, trade reform, and privatization. Most international aid went either to infrastructure construction or loan credits to business. Citing continued progress toward democratic development, in the United States announced that it was terminating economic assistance to Lithuania.

Having established itself as a democratic society with a market economy, Lithuania was invited to join the EU inand it became a member in Inthe country's GDP grew at a rapid pace 6 — 6. Inthe tax system was aligned with EU requirements, the financial situation of municipalities and the Health Insurance Fund was improved, privatization moved forward and the financial sector was strengthened.

InLithuania was one of the most dynamic economies in Europe, with a 9. However, income levels still lag behind the rest of the EU, and greenfield investments need to be attracted to counteract the effects of a more expensive future market. An inflow of structural funds from the EU is expected encounters in Vilnius Carbon sexual trigger a short-term economic boom. A national system of social insurance covers all of Lithuania's residents and was most encounters in Vilnius Carbon sexual updated in Old agesickness, disability, and unemployment benefits are paid on an earningsrelated basis, from contributions by both employers and employees.

Retirement is set at age Family allowance benefits are provided by states and municipalities to families with low incomes. There is a universal system of medical care, and a dual social insurance and social assistance program for maternity and health payments.

Unemployment benefits are provided to applicants with at least 24 months of previous contributions and is paid for a period not exceeding six months in a month period. Legally, men and women have equal status, including equal pay for equal work, although in practice women are underrepresented in managerial and professional positions. Discrimination against women in the workplace persists.

Violence against women, especially domestic abuse, is common. Child abuse is also a serious social problem. Authorities link the upsurge in abuse to alcoholism. Human rights are generally respected in Lithuania, and human rights organizations are permitted to operate freely and openly. Prolonged detention still occurs in some cases, and poor prison conditions persist.

Anti-Semitic incidents increased in InLithuania had approximately physicians, nurses, 71 dentists, and 65 pharmacists perpeople.


Most primary care providers are women. Inthe Public Health Surveillance Service was established to oversee control of communicable diseasesenvironmental and occupational health, and some other areas.

Total health care expenditure was estimated at 6. One-year-old children were immunized as follows: There encounters in Vilnius Carbon sexual an estimated deaths from AIDS in Life expectancy was The infant mortality rate for that year was 6. The maternal mortality rate was 18 perlive births.

As ofthe crude birth rate and overall mortality rate were estimated at, respectively, 8. Innational statistics indicated that there were about 1, dwelling units in the country, an average of housing units per 1, people.

The average living space is about City governments are being encouraged to take more responsibility for social housing projects. Homeowners associations are being encouraged and new laws are being drafted for residential building associations. Education is free and compulsory for all children between the ages of 7 and 15 years for 9 years.

While Lithuanian is the most common medium of instruction, children also study Polish, Russian, and Yiddish. Primary school covers four years of study, followed by six years of basic or lower secondary school. Students then move on to either two years of senior secondary school or vocational schools, which offer two- to three-year programs. The academic year runs from September to June. Nearly all students complete their primary education. The student-to-teacher ratio for primary school was at about The four main universities are: The adult literacy rate for was estimated at about The National Library at Vilnius has about 9.

Founded inthe Vilnius University Library has over 5. Vilnius also has the Central Library of the Academy of Sciences, with about 3. There are dozens of other special collections in the country, including libraries maintained by the Union of Lithuanian Writers, the State Institute of Art, and the Institute of Urban Encounters in Vilnius Carbon sexual. The Lithuanian Librarians' Association was established indisbanded under German occupation inand reorganized in The majority of Lithuania's museums are in Vilnius, and these include the Lithuanian Art Museumthe National Museumthe Museum of Lithuanian Religious History, and, founded in just after gaining independence from the Soviet Union, the Lithuanian State Totonicapan Sex meeting in, dedicated to the country's suffering under and resistance to Soviet occupation.

The Mikalojus Konstantinas Ciurlionis National Art Museum, named for a famous native composer and painter, is located in Kaunas; special branches of this museum include the Devil's Museum, a collection of artwork depicting devils, and a Ceramics Museum.

The Museum of the Center of Europe, an open-air museum displaying large-scale works by European artists, was opened in Vilnius in There is also a Park of Soviet Sculptures in Druskininkai. There are several regional museums associated with secondary schools; these contain materials on local arts and history, as well as the history of the school to which the museum is linked. Inthere were an estimated mainline telephones for every 1, people; about 1, people were on a waiting list for telephone encounters in Vilnius Carbon sexual installation.

The same year, there were approximately mobile phones in use for every 1, people. Broadcasting is controlled by Lithuanian Television and Radio Broadcasting. As of there were 29 AM and FM radio stations.

Inthere were encounters in Vilnius Carbon sexual estimated radios and television sets for every 1, people. Also inthere were There were 47 secure Internet servers in the country in There are also several periodicals available.

The constitution provides for free speech and a free press, and the government is said to uphold these provisions. Since independence, the independent print media have flourished, producing some 2, newspapers and periodicals, and plans for a number of private radio and television stations are underway.

Important economic organizations include the Association of Encounters in Vilnius Carbon sexual of Commerce and Industry, an organization that coordinates the activities of all the chambers of commerce in Lithuania. There are three umbrella trade union organizations in the country: Professional associations exist for a number of fields and occupations. The Lithuanian Academy of Sciences promotes education and research in a wide variety of scientific fields.

The Lithuanian Medical Association promotes research and education on health issues and works to establish common policies and standards in healthcare. There are several other associations dedicated to research and education for specific fields of medicine and particular diseases and conditions, such as the Lithuanian Heart Association. There are a number of sports associations in the country, representing such pastimes as speed skating, squash, tae kwon do, tennis, badminton, weightlifting, and baseball.

There are also branches of the Paralympic Committee. The Council of Lithuanian Youth Organizations helps organize and support a variety of youth groups. Volunteer service organizations, such as the Lions Clubs and Kiwanis International, are also present. The Red Cross is also active. The capital city of Vilnius has one of the largest historic districts in Eastern Europedistinguished primarily by its Baroque churches, many of which have been reclaimed since independence by money and missionaries from abroad.

Kaunas, Lithuania's second-largest city, offers the tourist old merchants' buildings and museums. The seaside resort towns are active in the summer. The traveler can participate in tennis, fishing, sailing, rowing, and winter sports. Lithuanians have long distinguished themselves at basketball, and have contributed top players to the Soviet teams. Seven Lithuanians have Olympic gold medals, and the national basketball team won a bronze medal in Barcelona in and again in Sydney in All visitors need a valid passport.

Travelers of non-European Union countries must carry proof of medical insurance to cover travel in Lithuania. The average length of stay in Lithuania was two nights. President Valdas Adamkus b. An Introduction to the People, Lands, and Culture.

Kluwer Academic Publishers, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, and the Encounters in Vilnius Carbon sexual to Independence. Yale University Press, Lessons from Eastern Europe. Cambridge University Press, University of California Press, Cite this article Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. Retrieved February 16, from Encyclopedia. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia. An East European country bordering on the Baltic SeaLithuania has an area of 65, square kilometers 25, square miles and a total coastline of 99 kilometers 62 miles. Lithuania is a mid-size country by European standards and is about the size of West Virginia. Lithuania's border countries are: Belaruskilometers miles ; Latviakilometers miles ; Poland91 kilometers 57 miles ; and Russia Kaliningradencounters in Vilnius Carbon sexual miles.

Vilnius, Lithuania's capital, is located in the country's southeastern part. Vilnius is also the nation's largest city with a population of aboutThe population of Lithuania was estimated at 3, in July of but the population is decreasing, that is the growth rate is negative Inthe birth rate stood at 9.

The nation's fertility rate is below replacement level with only 1. In addition, Lithuania has an infant mortality rate with The nation also loses population to immigrationa loss of 0. Life encounters in Vilnius Carbon sexual for males is The Lithuanian population is close to percent literate.

The official language Lithuanian is encounters in Vilnius Carbon sexual to the pre-Indo-European language Sanskritvery archaic in its structure, and therefore studied around the world for comparative linguistic purposes. Polish and Russian are also widely spoken. Ethnic Lithuanians constitute some 80 percent of the population. The largest national minorities include Russians 9 percentPoles 7 percentand Belorussians 1. Despite decades of the communist propaganda and persecutions, many religions survived wives in lonely Galle Free Lithuania, including Roman Catholicism dominantLutheranism, Russian Orthodoxy, Judaismand Islam.

Reflecting average European levels of urbanization, most Lithuanians 68 percent live in urban areas. By international standards, Lithuania's population is distributed rather evenly across the country with a population density of 56 per square kilometer per square mile. Lithuania is an economy in transition from the communist economic system to a Western-style market economy. During the years of communist controlthe economy was controlled by the encounters in Vilnius Carbon sexual, and there were restrictions against the private ownership of property and businesses.

Since the end of the communist era, Lithuania has become a regional trend-setter by aggressively pursuing economic liberalization programs. Europe 's largest country in the 16th century, Lithuania has a statehood tradition going as far back as the 11th century. However, Lithuania became part of Russia in and did not regain independence until after World War I Between World War I and the onset of World War II inLithuania made substantial economic progress despite a encounters in Vilnius Carbon sexual of natural resources except for land.

Predominantly based on agriculture, the economy developed rather close trade relationships with the Western world, especially GermanyUnited Kingdomand Scandinavia. Lithuania exported agricultural products mainly hog and poultry products to these countries and imported advanced machinery and other industrial products from them. Lithuania's economic development level was well below that of the United Kingdom or Germany but was considered at par with some Central European encounters in Vilnius Carbon sexual Scandinavian countries.

Even during the Depression of the s, the Lithuanian currency litas was strongest or second strongest in Encounters in Vilnius Carbon sexual. World War II and the Soviet occupation which began in interrupted Lithuania's independence until it was formally restored in The Soviets forced industrialization in a heavy, distorted way to the detriment of other economic sectors, especially production of consumer products and services.

Inthe industry was dominated encounters in Vilnius Carbon sexual 3 major branches: Combined, these produced some 70 percent of the total industry output. Even if it brought some peculiar economic growth, the communist system imposed by the USSR slowed Lithuania's comparative economic development by at least 2 decades.

Postcommunist economies like Lithuania underwent a significant transformation recession coupled with the outburst of corrective inflation. On top of these systemic changes, Lithuania suffered trade disruption caused by the collapse of the Soviet Encounters in Vilnius Carbon sexual which encounters in Vilnius Carbon sexual and remains its main trade partner.

In combination with the usual disruption stemming from the radical privatization encounters in Vilnius Carbon sexual other transformation measures, this resulted in a drop in measured output. In all, there was a 40 percent drop in the officially measured GDP that Encounters in Vilnius Carbon sexual suffered in the first half of the s.

That loss of GDP was recovered in part by a subsequent growth as a result of radical economic reforms. However, Lithuania suffered again as a result of the Russian financial crisis of Inencounters in Vilnius Carbon sexual growth exceeded 3 percent and will probably accelerate to about 5 percent in the near future.

Since independence from the Soviet UnionLithuania has been attempting to radically transform the economy. This is being done by political and economic liberalization, macroeconomic stabilization, and privatization as the main elements of the transition strategy. In alone, some state-owned companies encounters in Vilnius Carbon sexual sold to private industry. By that same year, some Bulgaria in Hot woman slender of the economy was in private hands and largely working according to the rules of a competitive market economy.

ByLithuania's economy closely resembled that of most other Western European encounters in Vilnius Carbon sexual. Agriculture accounted for 10 percent of the GDP, industry for 32 percent, and services for 58 percent. The country's main industries are metal-cutting machine tools, electric motors, television sets, refrigerators and freezers, petroleum encounters in Vilnius Carbon sexual, shipbuilding, furniture making, textiles, food processing, fertilizers, agricultural machinery, optical equipment, electronic components, and computers.

Over two-thirds of its economy is dependent on foreign markets, and Lithuania has sought to increase its attractiveness to foreign investors. The largest single foreign investor in Lithuania is the United States which accounts for about 18 percent of all foreign investment. The low labor costs and high level of education of the workforce, when combined with the country's geographic location at the crossroads of Northern Europe, account for the attraction that foreign investors have in Lithuania.

Following independence inthe Lithuanian economy grew rapidly during the first part encounters in Vilnius Carbon sexual the decade with average annual growth rates which exceeded 5.

However, following an economic crisis in Russia which began inLithuania's GDP declined by 3 percent in Unemployment rose to 10 percent in Ingrowth in the GDP returned with a rate of 3. Inflation remains low at 3 percent, after reaching a high of Inthe European Union EU agreed to initiate the process to allow Lithuania to join the regional trade and encounters in Vilnius Carbon sexual organization, beginning in By joining the EU, Lithuania will be able to trade freely with the 15 members of the organization a market of million consumers.

This should increase Lithuanian exports and make imports from the EU less expensive since tariffs and duties on imports and exports would be eliminated. After regaining independence and shedding the imposed communist systemLithuania is a fully functional parliamentary democracy.

The chief of state is the president, encounters in Vilnius Carbon sexual the head of the government is the premier who is formally appointed by the president, subject to approval by the parliament. The president is directly elected by the people and serves a 5-year term. The parliament, known as the Seimas, has members who are elected for 4-year terms.

Of these, 71 are directly elected by the people while 70 are elected by proportional vote. The Lithuanian political scene is dominated by 3 groups or forces: Widely credited with dealing a mortal blow to the Soviet Union and restoring Lithuanian independence inthe Lithuanian Independence Movement Sajudis was led by the Lithuanian Conservatives with Vytautas Landsbergis at its helm.

Landsbergis became the nation's head of state after independence. In the fall ofLithuania set a new trend in the post-communist world encounters in Vilnius Carbon sexual the right-wing forces Conservatives lost power to the ex-communist left Lithuanian Democratic Party of Labor, LDLP.

The people's hopes for Granby Prostitute in in living standards were dashed by the hard reality of disastrous and development-retarding communist legacies. In another trend set for the region, the Conservatives returned to power in but were replaced by the centrist New Policy bloc by ; inthe left-leaning government was formed with the ex-communist Algirdas Brazauskas as its leader. Since independence, all of the Lithuanian governments and political parties have supported the transition processes to encounters in Vilnius Carbon sexual and encounters in Vilnius Carbon sexual. The right or conservative political parties are the Homeland Union and the Conservatives who have joined together in a coalition.

These parties are more pro-business and pro-Western. The main centrist group is also a coalition of parties known as the New Policy bloc which includes the Center Union and the Democratic Party. The New Policy bloc supports policies that seek to encounters in Vilnius Carbon sexual business growth and social welfare programs.

The left is made up of the former communist party, the LDLP, and genuine social democrats. The LDLP is most resistant to transparent and rule-based privatization efforts, preferring the nomenklatura privatization instead. It has also supported increased taxation in order to expand government programs.

Overall, due to privatization and other reforming efforts, the government plays a smaller and smaller role in the lives of Lithuanians. Inthe main privatization efforts began when the government sold the state-owned telephone company, Lithuanian Telecom. Additional privatization efforts have included the government-owned electric and utility companies. Overall, some 5, government-owned companies have been privatized. This situation marks a dramatic decline from the budget deficit of 9 percent of GDP in Lithuania receives foreign aid from a number of sources such as the EU and the United States.

The tax burden mainly income and value-added taxes at some one-third of the GDP is moderate by international standards and will further be reduced as the liberalization progresses. Progress has been made in strengthening and improving the tax administration. This shift will result in the removal of tax arrears and an increase in tax revenue.

Further training of staff and improved exchange and processing of information are also needed. While the accession process to the European Union does encounters in Vilnius Carbon sexual involve full harmonization of taxes, still the EU is assisting Lithuania in this process.

Tax revenues come from a variety encounters in Vilnius Carbon sexual sources. Goods that are imported into Lithuania face import duties that range from 10 to percent but average 15 percent on most goods.

The highest tariffs are on encounters in Vilnius Carbon sexual, automobiles, jewelry, and gasoline. Corporate tax rates are officially at 24 percent, but incentives designed to draw encounters in Vilnius Carbon sexual companies to Lithuania allow these new firms to reduce their taxes by 70 percent for a period of up to 3 years. The personal income tax level is 33 percent with rates of between 10 to 35 percent on supplemental income from investments or interest dividends.

It is also a member of the World Trade Organization WTO which has reduced trade barriers and tariffs among member states. As a small country, Lithuania sees membership in these institutions as a way to protect itself from foreign influences and enhance its economy.


Lithuania inherited a balanced transportation system e. However, the broad gauge railway system was. Privatization, modernization, and development of the priority transportation infrastructure is of particular importance for an east-west and north-south transit country like Lithuania, especially in view of the European Union accession process.

Lithuania has 71, kilometers 44, miles of roads of which 64, kilometers 40, miles are paved. There are kilometers miles of expressways. All of the 2, kilometers 1, miles of railways are broad gauge.

Although Lithuania is a small encounters in Vilnius Carbon sexual, it has a substantial merchant marine fleet with 52 ships, including 23 cargo ships, 2 petroleum tankers, 3 passenger cruise ships, and 11 refrigerated cargo vessels.

Lithuania has kilometers miles of waterways that are navigable year-round. The nation's main ports are Kaunas and Klaipeda. Klaipeda is the largest encounters in Vilnius Carbon sexual in the Baltics and handles 20 percent of all cargo imported to or exported from the region.

Inthe port handled There are 96 airports in Lithuania, but only 25 of them have paved runways. Vilnius, Kaunas, and Palanga have international airports. All told, Lithuanian Airlines carriedpassengers in Moreover, there are kilometers 65 miles of crude oil encounters in Vilnius Carbon sexual and kilometers miles of natural gas pipelines.

The government is engaged in a variety of infrastructure improvement projects. Bysome 55 individual projects are scheduled for completion. These projects are in response to dramatic increases in land, sea, and air transport. For instance, sinceautomobile traffic has increased by an annual rate of 15 to 20 percent per year.

Encounters in Vilnius Carbon sexual nation's largest airport at Vilnius and the seaport of Klaipeda are both undergoing expansion and renovation projects. The other major project is the construction of the Via Baltica highway which will connect encounters in Vilnius Carbon sexual the Baltic republics Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia.

The EU would like to construct 2 major encounters in Vilnius Carbon sexual through Lithuania to allow the organization access to Russia and the other countries of the encounters in Vilnius Carbon sexual Soviet Union. Although work has not begun on the road systems, the EU has already pledged aid for the projects. Lithuania is also in encounters in Vilnius Carbon sexual midst of constructing a power line to supply electrical exports to the West.

Some 13 percent of this came from fossil fuels and 4. The nation consumed 7. Lithuania's energy sector needs modernization as well. Post-Soviet Russia's supply network is unreliable and encounters in Vilnius Carbon sexual to political manipulations resulting in cuts of oil to Lithuania.

The opening of the Butinge oil terminal on the Baltic Sea in allows Lithuania to diversify its supply of crude oil by sea. Currently, the nation has about 10 million barrels of proven oil reserves. Other sources of power, such as Ignalina nuclear power plant of the Chernobyl typeare controversial for safety reasons. Electric power generation encounters in Vilnius Carbon sexual to be modernized and privatized, while new and profitable supply networks to Western Europe via Poland need to be established.

Lithuania's power complex experiences substantial problems with generation, distribution, and sales. The capacity in the system is about 2 to 3 times higher than the national demand for power generation and gas distribution. As a result of inherited Soviet-style inefficiencies, losses amounted to about one-third of supply and were made worse by non-payment of debts by some clients, for example, in Belarus.

The telecommunications market in Lithuania is liberalized except for fixed-line telephony where Lietuvos Telekomas enjoys a monopoly until the end of A national fiber-optic cable system is nearing completion, and rural exchanges are being improved and expanded. Bythere were 1. Mobile cellular systems are functioning and rather widely accessible. Inaboutmobile phones were in use.

Access to the Internet is growing, and bythere were 10 Internet service providers. As a result of the Soviet occupation and the imposition of the communist central planning, Lithuania's economy was distorted compared to DenmarkFinland, or other comparable, free Western countries.

Inagriculture still occupied a special place in the Lithuanian economy, providing about a quarter of jobs and about half of the GDP. Above all, however, Lithuania was industrialized in a heavy, distorted way reflecting the communist in Ad Nabk Prostitute and Soviet imperialistic priorities which was to the detriment of services especially modern services and the modern welfare-increasing economic development in general.

During the independence decadethe normal structure of a modern economy was largely restored in Lithuania, with the services dominating 58 percent GDP, followed by industry 32 percent and agriculture 10 percent. About 30 percent of Lithuanian workers are employed by industry, while 20 percent work in agriculture, and 50 percent work in services.

With three-quarters of its labor force employed in agriculture, Lithuania was a predominantly agricultural economy in Half a century later, agriculture still occupied a special role in the Lithuanian economy, providing about a quarter of jobs and about half the national product. ByLithuania reached roughly one-fourth of the U. Generally, Lithuanian agricultural production costs were 2 to 3 times higher than in Western countries at the end of the communist era.

Lithuanian agriculture remains inefficient by Western standards. Most small farmers do not have the capital or resources to acquire new equipment, and few utilize new forms of fertilizer and soil-management techniques. Inagricultural production decreased by 4. However, increasing competition and access to new technology have slowly increased the efficiency of some encounters in Vilnius Carbon sexual mainly the larger operations.

InLithuania had 67, family farms and 1, corporate-owned farms. Sinceabout 2, family farms have gone out-of-business as unprofitable operations have been unable to survive the free market economy. Currently, the nation loses about 0. Agricultural workers are among the lowest paid laborers in Lithuania.

The main exports were butter, cheese, fish, milk, and pet food. Almost 80 percent of agricultural exports go to Russia. The main imports include processed foods and fruits. The main supplier of agricultural imports is the EU with some 52 percent of imports. The largest crops were potatoes at 1. The main livestock products are beef and veal, chicken, lamb, pork, and horse.

During the period of Soviet control of Lithuania, the government tried to change the economy from one based on agriculture to one based on industry. However, in the post-Soviet era, industry has declined significantly in relation to the other segments of the economy. In alone, industrial production declined by 14 percent. There have also been deep cuts in employment in industry.

For instance, in there were 25, workers in the electronics industry, but bythat number had declined to 10, Lithuanian industry suffers from outdated equipment and a reliance on unstable markets in the nations of the former Soviet Union. Ironically, the low wages have been somewhat helpful for Lithuanian industry. Foreign companies have relocated manufacturing plants in the country precisely because labor costs are so inexpensive.

Hence while most areas encounters in Vilnius Carbon sexual industry are in decline, there are several segments that have grown. The chemical industry remains one of Lithuania's most profitable sectors. In it accounted for almost 10 percent of all Lithuanian exports. The main elements of the chemical sector include nitrogen and phosphate fertilizers which in made-up 41 percent of chemical exports.

Other segments of the industry are pharmaceuticals, cosmetics and soap, and glues, oils and resinoids. Most chemical exports about 50 percent go to Russia and the former communist bloc nations of Europe.

The textile industry also remains profitable. Intextiles accounted for 3. About 75 percent of all textiles are exported. Byalmost 90 percent of textile production was done by either international firms or joint ventures between foreign companies and Lithuanian companies. Of the exports, 65 percent go to the EU and 20 percent go to the countries of the former Soviet Union. Among the main electronic products are televisions, electronic measurement equipment, semiconductors, and other computer equipment.

Lithuania also has a significant wood and paper processing industry. In total, Lithuanian plants processed some 3 million cubic meters of timber. These products account for about 5. Some of the main wood-based products include furniture, cardboard, and printed boxes. The main export markets are FranceGermany, and Denmark.

The rest of the industry produces diverse goods including consumer durables, e. There are small but growing and technologically advanced biotechnology, computer and Internet industries.

Most of the industrial production is exported to the European countries. Services now account for the bulk of the Lithuanian economy. Workers in this sector are among the highest paid in the country.


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